I’ve heard a lot lately about fears that a conspiracy is being perpetrated by the pharmaceutical industry and the government to keep natural cancer cures (and natural or holistic care in general) away from patients. It makes for a dramatic story with lots of Hollywood appeal, but examining the accusations leads down a more insidious path. To get there and understand the full extent of the problem, we need to step back and look at a range of sub-industries within the healthcare umbrella, what they provide and how they intertwine. We also need to understand some basics about statistics and probability that will clarify what some of the facts surrounding this conspiracy really mean. [And when you are done reading this, please continue on with the next chapter in this ongoing series.]
Supplementing the Truth
To begin with, let’s examine the hugely profitable supplements industry (mentioned in Forbes’ SportsMoney column as one of the fastest growing industries in the world). “Natural health” advocates and self-proclaimed gurus often have their own supplement brands which they sell as part of treatment plans pushed on their web sites, or they have affiliate arrangements with a brand that they offer as being somehow superior to other brands. The supplement industry has grown from the notion that manufactured (or synthetic) vitamins could be used to supplement areas in the diet where a person was not able to consume adequate quantities to be healthy. In an indirect way, it can be traced back hundreds of years to the discovery that citrus fruit — particularly lemons — could prevent sailors from getting scurvy. It turned out that scurvy was a disease caused by a Vitamin C deficiency. By “supplementing” this vitamin, the disease could be avoided.
In a modern context, supplements are used medicinally in instances where a particular vitamin or mineral is necessary in higher quantities than a person could be expected to consume from his or her regular diet. Commonly, pregnant women are given extra folate or folic acid, for example, because these help the development of the brain and nervous system in the fetus. Likewise, for a cancer patient, folic acid may be prescribed to prevent nerve degeneration or stimulate recovery from minor neuropathy. As people continue to live longer, healthier lives in general, older people may need to supplement the Vitamin D and calcium necessary for bone strength because their bodies do not produce as much Vitamin D naturally and their dietary needs for calcium may increase. Also true for cancer patients, a small increase in Vitamin D and calcium may be necessary to prevent bone loss or weakening due to some forms of medication or treatment.
For most people, however, taking anything as a supplement will have no measurable affect on their bodies if they are able to eat a balanced diet. (Note: vegetarians may need to supplement Vitamin B-12, which is also commonly given as a shot to cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.) The notion that high doses of vitamins can supercharge a person’s health is not founded on any actual science. Quite the opposite, most of what people ingest in supplement form is removed from the body in urine. It is easy to see this process, especially with B vitamins, as the supplements will turn urine a dark yellow rather than the very light yellow of typically healthy urine. Excessively high doses of vitamins can actually stress the liver and kidneys or even build up to toxic levels in the body. New research even suggests that high doses of antioxidants are more likely to cause cancer to spread rather than to prevent cancer growth. Still, the supplement industry is an intrinsic part of the natural health industry, in spite of the frequent controversies surrounding an astounding lack of regulation.
One of the cornerstones of the conspiracy against the natural health industry is that these do-gooders are being squashed because the products they peddle are natural and therefore inexpensive, and Big Pharma is all about profits — therefore, Big Pharma can afford to kill their poor competition. Looking at this objectively, however, it is clear that the natural health industry is big business in its own right. Estimates for the broad natural health and wellness industry hit $774 billion in sales back in 2014. A report in the Nutrition Business Journal revealed that in 2013, the smaller nutrition and supplements market alone was about $104 billion; it has continued to grow in the years since. That growth is in part because of how the industry circumvents regulation and has a willingness to take products that have been banned in one country and find ways to sell them in others. Many natural health advocates suggest that the trend for increased regulations is a sign that the conspiracy must be real, in spite of the fact that countries like the United States actually have laws in place to protect the supplement industry (or at least ensure enough loopholes where consumer protections are supposed to be offered). The supplement industry even has a high profile insider ally in Senator Orrin Hatch, one of many politicians who has sided with the natural health industry over the years. (It should be noted that the pharmaceutical industry is still a much bigger business, but with vastly higher “operating costs” and a dramatically smaller rate of growth, as noted in another Forbes article, which indicates that the supplement industry is currently a better investment if the aim is to get rich quickly.)
While statistics vary somewhat between sources when discussing alternative medicine, partly because some providers are either “underground” or operating illegally while many others are in foreign countries where they are not regulated. It is safe to say, however, that registered companies in the United States alone are expected to show revenue over $14 billion in 2016, part of a decades-long steady increase in this profitable and expanding market outside of the nutrition and supplement market (though there is crossover). This is far from a fringe industry that is being “kept quiet” by Big Pharma. Compared to the mainstream pharmaceutical industry, alternative medicine may be a niche market, but it is hardly a quiet or obscure one. Because of this explosive industry growth, we have seen a rise of self-proclaimed Wellness Warriors in recent years. In addition to these self-taught gurus, there has also been a burgeoning market in books and videos on alternative cures and natural healing. Many of these books and videos hinge on the theme that they offer free or low-cost solutions that are non-toxic alternatives to the “slash, burn and poison” approach of the medical establishment, especially in regard to the alternative medicine cash cow of cancer treatment.
A rising star in the world of books and movies claiming to have all the real answers that your doctors are hiding from you, Ty Bollinger brings a new level of irony to the title of his video series, The Truth About Cancer. Bollinger is part of this particular breed of opportunist who offers false hope to the fearful — a fear he has helped to create and increase during his sales pitches and in the content of his books and videos by misrepresenting facts and presenting logical fallacies as “proof” of his ideas. People like him are particularly dangerous and could lead patients down an irreversible road to death when a medical cure could be readily available.
Make no mistake, Ty Bollinger claims that you can cure cancer without surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. He makes claims on this page such as “Natural herbal supplement tested 100% effective at reversing 7 types of cancer.” But that statement, based on the actual content of his books and videos, is demonstrably false. He also makes this claim: “If you would like to learn how to cure your cancer permanently … without drugs, without risky surgery, without radition (sic) treatments, and without any side effects, then this will be the most important letter you will ever read. I guarantee it and I’ve got the results to prove it!” Double down on that guarantee, because he explicitly states that “It’s the same system thousands of men and women, just like you, used to cure their cancer and achieve permanent freedom from the this death sentence.”
When thousands of patients have cured themselves through some simple, natural, non-toxic method, this is not something that “greedy drug companies keep hushed up” because it would be impossible. The sheer volume of cures claimed by Ty Bollinger and people like him would present overwhelming numbers, incontrovertible evidence for efficacy, if they were true. But they are not. To put this in perspective, read this quote: “The alternative doctor with the 93% cure rate, based on his 32,507 cancer patients! Beats conventional medicine’s cancer cure rate of 2 percent.” Break the number down: At the claimed cure rate, that means this single doctor had cured over 30,000 cancer patients. Assume a 25 year career of doing this and that would mean a single doctor cured over 1,200 patients each year. Even over a 50 year period, that would mean more than two patients were cured every day by a single doctor. It sounds suspiciously like the myth one “Dr. Leonard Coldwell” propagated about himself when he claimed to have cured 35,000 cancer patients beginning roughly 43 years before that claim. While the claimed numbers do not precisely jive, the nonsensical cures – like alkaline diets (or the famous “baking soda cure”), using herbs, completely mis-identifying symptoms (tumor reduction as a sign that treatment is not working? Yes, Ty goes there!) and of course hawking their own supplements — are in rare synchronicity. But that is the way of the con artists in the alternative therapy realm, they stick together.
But what if they are right about one of the basic tenets of their pitch? What if the essential truth about cancer treatment is that the medical establishment has simply ignored the cures nature has given us, that have been there and have been known all along?
Ancient Wisdom and the Traditional Cures of Our Ancestors
This would be a doozy of a conspiracy. After all, ancient texts are, by definition, in writing. And therefore they are easy to not only read, but also to copy and disperse. Look at the Bible, which is over 2,000 years old — that ancient text is fairly ubiquitous today. It is, after all, in virtually every hotel room across the United States and, I’m pretty sure, is available in multiple languages, not merely the dead ones it sprang from. (Okay, technically, those languages are not entirely dead yet, but our modern educational system seems to be doing its level best to ensure that inevitability.) There are even older texts floating around, too. Medical texts from India dating back something like 5,000 or 10,000 years supposedly have all sorts of useful information in them. Similar claims are made for texts from ancient Greece, Egypt and especially China.
Wow. That is a lot of really old, easily identifiable information. It seems perfectly reasonable that if those texts were being used to cure anything, especially if they could offer cures for cancer, that they would be the dominant texts in our medical schools. It would also stand to reason that, looking back through history, there would be no ongoing recurrence of disease because, you know, obvious answers through all that traditional medicine and ancient wisdom.
Or maybe, just maybe, those things failed. Maybe ancient wisdom is systematically replaced by better wisdom because new information becomes available. Maybe people live so significantly longer now — and we have better diagnostic tools — so that we see diseases like cancer that most people could never hope to live to see because they were too busy dying of so many other things that ancient wisdom and traditional medicine already had no hope of curing. Let’s face it: small pox and polio pretty much just killed and maimed large populations before modern science developed vaccines. The bubonic plague essentially wiped out towns every time it popped up before modern science had a cure. Guess what — polio and the bubonic plague are still around, but we are not all dropping dead as a result. Thank you modern science. As for cancer cures, it is even more relevant because until less than 50 years ago, we did not even really know what cancer was. That’s right, one of the reasons that we have made more progress with cancer treatment in the last few decades than in all of preceding human history is because we finally have a broad understanding of the truth about cancer.
- Cancer is not a single disease
- Different cancers require different treatments
The notion that cancer is an umbrella term for multiple diseases is a very recent development. It is also one that the alternative treatment hucksters have yet to catch up to. In fact, they tend to market their cures in the most general terms possible, applying them to any cancer, regardless of type. And this works heavily to their advantage because, aside from having no real grasp of science, these alternative providers need their patients to remain ignorant — and willfully so.
Denial is the cornerstone of the perfect alternative treatment cancer patient. Especially in this day and age, when the Internet makes finding information so very easy, it is astounding that patients would purposefully select only sources that parrot one another (often through direct cut and paste) without providing actual case studies, clinical trial information or relevant scientific support. Yet many patients appear to get their information from poorly made YouTube videos or bad sales letters like Ty Bollinger provided. The reason that patients stick with this (lack of) information is in no small part because they are afraid. They choose to burrow deeply into the rabbit hole of alternative treatment rather than face the much less frightening reality that modern medical science (which they may not understand) offers better hope than the overly simplified silliness of alternative quackery. I feel sorry for these patients, mainly because their fears have been encouraged by unethical opportunists parading as experts and saviors. But the patients themselves must hold some culpability because holding that level of denial requires no small amount of energy and determination. Of course, the opportunists who profit off of these patients focus a lot of their own marketing efforts on keeping that fear dominant and promising miracles in a quasi-religious (or in the case of Ty Bollinger, actually fundamentalist Christian) manner. Essentially, the con artists turn prospective patients into True Believers. Then their work is mostly done, for a True Believer will never give up or give in, regardless of how clearly the face of reason shows itself. They forget, these True Believers, that belief and knowledge are not the same thing. No. Matter. What.
At this point, I am going to pause -- think of this as an intermission if you will -- and draw your attention to an example of what happens when you put your faith in something that is well-founded, proven and readily verifiable. I cannot read the posts on Emily Bennett Taylor's blog without tearing up most days, but clicking that link will bring you to a post written by her husband that shows what can happen as a result of modern medical science. It's a quick read, but it highlights the reality of modern cancer care and the promise it offers. Now, back to our regularly scheduled show, already in progress.
Murder, Black Ops and Cover Ups By Big Pharma
One more aspect to the overriding conspiracies being bandied about is that “holistic doctors” are being “silenced” in order for Big Pharma to protect its interests. Some people have been identifying a link between specific deaths and an ideological belief about the pharmaceutical industry. Jeff Bradstreet, an alternative healthcare practitioner whose office had been raided by the FDA and who was facing professional disgrace, killed himself in the woods. Because Bradstreet was fairly outspoken with regard to his feelings against vaccinations, he had developed something of a name for himself. His loss was noted among many in the alternative medical community.
Key among this community was Erin Elizabeth, who quickly began compiling other deaths that she noticed around the same time in 2015. These included chiropractor Baron Holt (who had “known” health issues) and Nicholas Gonzales, who provided his own alternative cancer therapy (based on a quasi-religious treatment devised by a dentist) comprised mostly of coffee enemas, high doses of vitamins and the myth of altering the acid/alkaline balance of the body. When Gonzales died, it was a natural fit with Bradstreet — even though their areas of “influence” were completely different. Plus, Gonzales was 67 and died of a heart attack. Bradstreet was being investigated for what appears to be insurance fraud and patient endangerment and he went out in the woods and shot himself. Chiropractor Holt died somewhat young, at just 33, but, with a history of health problems and no greater impact on public perception of alternative treatments. Initially, five doctors were grouped together, some of them shot (maybe even murdered). The group quickly expanded. But not all of them were necessarily “holistic” doctors. One, Lisa Riley, MD, was an emergency room physician with no connection to alternative practices. As the list grew, the percentage of actual “holistic” doctors shrank.
In the end, this murder conspiracy is not so much about a bunch of healthcare professionals being targeted as it is about the Birthday Problem.
This is where we get to look at statistics and what they really mean with regard to the five deaths that have been “drawn” together by Erin Elizabeth and other conspiracy advocates. Here are some facts to begin with:
- There are nearly 1 million primary care doctors in the United States, just looking at MDs and DOs. That is, practicing medical professionals with medical degrees.
- Doctors are more than twice as likely than the general population to commit suicide. (“Between 28 and 40 per 100,000, compared with the overall rate in the general population of 12.3 per 100,000” according to a paper from the Southern Medical Journal, which went on to state, “Each year, it would take the equivalent of 1 to 2 average-sized graduating classes of medical school to replace the number of physicians who kill themselves.”)
- When you have 23 people in a room, there is a better than 50% chance that two of them will have the same birthday.
I bet that last one threw you off. But it’s true, in terms of probability. And it is relevant when we get into tying together this seeming rash of “holistic doctors” suddenly dying within less than two months of each other. To understand why, I’ll walk you through a bit of the Birthday Problem. We know that if there are 365 days in the year and we have 366 people in the room (okay, 367 just in case one has a “Leap Year” birthday), that there is a 100% chance at least two people share a birthday. You have more people than birthdays to choose from, so it’s a safe bet, no question. But probability is a funny thing, so to simplify things, we’ll discount Leap Year altogether and skip the math (your welcome), and come to the surprising conclusion that if you want a better than even chance to have two people out of a group share a birthday, get 23 random people in there together. The more people you add to the room, the greater the odds that two of them will share a birthday. But here is where it gets really crazy: when you have just 75 people in the room, the odds are almost as good as having 365 people in the room. What?! That seems paradoxical! But really, it’s just math. That’s right, putting 75 random people together offers over a 99% chance of two sharing the same birthday. Not a guarantee, certainly, but very solid odds. Walk into any crowded bar and begin placing bets, because this is a pretty safe one.
And you may wonder what this has to do with a murder conspiracy. I will start by saying that five is a pretty small number. When you look at the odds in question — that five holistic doctors would die in the same six or seven week period — it initially seems like self-evident proof of a link because that seems well beyond the realm of coincidence. A couple of them were even in the same state, by gum! But, if we examine them more closely, we find that there is no professional connection between them, no consistency in terms of their professional practices, at least two of them were really not alternative doctors (one clearly was not, another was an MD who may have used some “holistic” techniques in addition to mainstream medicine), one was just a chiropractor doing what chiropractors commonly do, only two of them were known “fringe” healthcare zealots. Bradstreet was under heavy investigation for possible illegal and dangerous treatments, Gonzales had run an actual high-profile clinical trial that proved patients were likely to die more quickly under his treatment protocol than if they did nothing for their cancer at all.
Taking all of that into consideration, it is entirely probable that out of nearly one million doctors, two would be murdered in the same week. We should expect that the odds of having two chiropractors (out of over 45,000 in the US) die of natural causes in the same week would be fairly high — even if you account only for the state of Florida. There are, after all, over 2,000 chiropractors working in Florida, and even if you adjust for chiropractors who are fathers and Christians (the way the Health Nut News site preferred to report them, as though those details bolstered the conspiracy) there is still a high probability that it will happen in any single week of the year. (Another way to look at this is to look at any state’s murder rate and then figure chiropractors as a percentage of the population, then figure the odds of how many chiropractors should be murdered on average. Do it again with fathers as the demographic. There are a lot of fun ways to break down odds, but no matter what, you are going to find that it is entirely too probable that such deaths would occur and were statistically anticipated.)
You may never roll snake eyes, no matter how many times you let those dice fly, but it does not change the odds one bit. And if you close your eyes and miss it the one time you do, it won’t affect the odds of rolling it twice in a row. That Erin Elizabeth happened to notice a collection of unrelated deaths in a particular window of time is more of an indication that she was looking to make connections than anything else. Chiropractors and holistic doctors have died by the droves before and since, some murdered no doubt, some in suicides and probably plenty by accident or from natural causes. Dying is, after all, part of life and cannot be avoided. But every death is not connected and certainly such a small number of deaths in such a large demographic pool is evidence of nothing other than the odds being overwhelmingly in favor of it having happened.
More recently, Erin Elizabeth tried tying the brutal murder of a practitioner of Chinese medicine and acupuncture in Santa Barbara, California, to the conspiracy. She is combing far and wide to include anyone and anything that she can. But looking at these instances for what they are, there is not a shred of anything unusual to connect them. A conspiracy will always hold itself as true before there is any evidence, then search for selective evidence to “prove” it while ignoring anything that does not fit the conspiracy. More notable that any of that, however, is the idea that Big Pharma is killing all these people to protect its financial interests. That breaks down in an interesting manner.
If everyone stopped vaccinating (and even many “anti-vax” proponents — including Andrew Wakefield who started this controversy — only want to stop the MMR vaccine, reverting to three separate vaccines in place of the combined shot), it would still only amount to 3% of Big Pharma’s current profits. How much would it cost to orchestrate and cover up the murders of all the anti-vax doctors out there — and why only kill the one who was clearly in legal trouble already? That makes no sense. Beyond that, if everyone stopped vaccinating, then there would be a whole lot more money to be made in treating diseases that are currently all but eradicated. Sick people take more drugs than healthy people, so it would not be a total loss for Big Pharma.
No, there is no conspiracy here, even with death threats reportedly being phoned in against the occasional “activist.” Outspoken people are simply likely to get death threats. It happens, largely because there are crazy people all over the political and social spectrum. Sometimes, sadly, crazy people act on their threats. But more often than not, situations like the conspiracy being discussed here, any connections are purely coincidental and even tenuous at best. It is a huge stretch to link any of the deaths that Erin Elizabeth has brought together and unless she has some smoking gun that really ties this imaginary underground cabal of holistic doctors together in revolution against the Government run Big Pharma (or is it Big Pharma run Government?), the public would be best served if this whole conspiracy would just disappear. (If you really want to see some pretend journalism, here is an pro-conspiracy interview with a distinct lack of critical investigation skills on full display for your viewing pleasure. It’s particularly cute how the interviewer and Erin Elizabeth both throw away the comment that it could all be coincidence, but… While propagating the links, Elizabeth disavows responsibility for fanning the conspiracy fires. She repeatedly and cleverly insists it isn’t her idea, but that others keep coming back to mysterious connections.)
Not All Questions Are Equal
There is a meme that runs amongst conspiracy theorists that if enough people are asking a question, that it should deserve consideration. This is a false premise, because people can ask questions that are utterly stupid just as easily as questions that are thoughtful and well-founded. Getting a lot of people to ask the same silly question (such as, “what is being done to protect us from dihydrogen monoxide, the world’s leading killer?”) does not make the question any less silly (dihydrogen monoxide is H2O, or water, which does account for a massive amount of drowning deaths each year but is also, it turns out, essential for life to exist). And many people who push a conspiratorial agenda keep coming back to it, again and again, with the same refuted or debunked evidence, claiming that “all they want to do is start a dialogue.” In many cases, that dialogue has not only been “started” repeatedly, but heavily engaged and ultimately closed. Yet, there it is again, from the same mouthpiece, with the same data and in the end, the same conclusions.
Contrails are a good example of conspiracy theories gone wild. A “documentary” was made some time back claiming that the government, possibly, or some unknown organization like the Illuminati, perhaps, was spraying chemicals, or something, could just have been metal bits, but whatever it was, it was being sprayed by planes and you could see it, plain as day, everywhere in the sky, some days, but everywhere, especially over farmland, or cities, or wherever planes were… And the term “chemtrail” was coined, and the video went viral and the guy who slapped together this home footage with some “interviews” (I put that in quotes because almost everything that comes from a legitimate source is taken out of context and the rest is just misleading nonsense from people who are not experts in what they are talking about or who are just nuts, and I say that in the most kind and loving way that can be said about nuts, with no offense meant to almonds or their kin), that guy went on to sell the videos and make money off them and then made a sequel of sorts and pushed that video and made more money. And all he basically did was ask a bunch of disconnected questions over and over and say, hey, enough people are asking questions about this — and there are certainly lots and lots of questions being asked here — so this needs to be taken seriously.
Of course, it should not have been taken seriously. The main reason to write it off was that he had no solid thesis, no singular purpose for creating chemtrails, no evidence that anything was actually happening and no science to back up his many incongruent claims. In fact, one of the most laughable aspects of the videos (which I did watch, all the painful way through) was that the theories he presented negated one another. If it was one thing, all the “evidence” he was fabricating of another went out the proverbial window. It was nonsense. That still did not stop people from demanding action. Much like the enormous amount of people trying to take action against dihydrogen monoxide over the years, it spurned letter writing campaigns, got into the media underbelly and became a “thing.”
Scientists even bent over backward to explain why chemtrails do not exist, why contrails were sometimes more visible than other times and also why they may be cropping up in more places now than in previous decades. Most of this should be painfully obvious to anyone with even a basic high school education. Contrails are visible at higher altitudes, more so when the proper atmospheric pressure and temperatures are present. That means, the same plane may leave a visible trail one day but not another. But the contrail is there regardless, every time. Then consider that we have exponentially more airports now than we did fifty or sixty years ago, so more flight paths over more parts of the country with decidedly more planes — and bigger planes that have greater contrails. Yet, visible contrails are nothing new and there are archival photos showing the skies over major cities filled with contrails — just like today — that date back to the 1940s. Plus, there was WWII, a highly documented time of air battles and early jet planes. Why did contrails not show up prior to the 1940s? Well, propellers act differently than jets. The more jets, the more contrails. Just cannot change the science to fit the conspiracy.
Yet, changing the science to fit is the hallmark of medical conspiracies. The “truth” shown in arguments that vaccines are bad is based on altering the science to support the conspiracy. This is also known as scientific fraud. The following video from the New York Times highlights the absurdity of the anti-vaccination movement, for example. In 13 minutes, it does an excellent job of showing how hysteria (among a frightened population looking for a scapegoat) can be generated by an opportunist and picked up by a disingenuous media, in spite of sensible voices clearly stating that if you look at this problem scientifically, you see there is no problem at all. Just substitute “vaccinations” for “Dungeons and Dragons” in your mind as you watch. Or, just as easily, substitute the “pharmaceutical industry” — you will not have to change much else to mimic these current conspiracies and how they are playing out.
When we insist on looking at everything with a level of skepticism, it becomes increasingly easier to separate the fact from fantasy and, more importantly, the good questions from the time wasters. A good question would be anything that furthers a discussion to a productive end. We need to ask questions. Science demands that we strive for new and better questions all the time. But ignoring the evidence we have available, ignoring repeatable, verifiable evidence, just to push an agenda that does not build on accumulated knowledge is a waste of time. Questions about chemtrails are a waste of time. Creating new questions about debunked claims of any sort is a waste of time.
The process of applying reason and critical thinking to determine validity. There is no better definition of skepticism, and no better way to approach any problem. Although at odds with fundamentalist religious teaching, skepticism is by no means relegated to atheists. Nor does a skeptic necessarily take a negative approach toward any belief or any topic at all, for that matter. Being a skeptic merely means that, first and foremost, before a conclusion can be made, reason and critical thinking must be applied. And, as any true scientist knows, such a conclusion may be fluid as more information becomes available. When a study that a conclusion was based on turns out to be flawed (or downright fabricated), that conclusion is reversed. Conversely, when information is offered that has no substantiation or is based on faulty logic — or has been clearly debunked — it need not alter conclusions, no matter how many times this information is put forward, because it is not supported by critical thinking.
The only conspiracy that exists surrounding alternative practitioners, natural health care and holistic doctors is the concerted efforts amongst some of them (I would even say a very small, if vocal, minority of them) to engender fear of mainstream medical practices. This is a true evil, as it puts their profits and personal celebrity ahead of the patients they pretend to want to help. Creating fear through the process of inspiring ignorance is a low-point in human nature. We should all collectively rise above that, and how we do so will help to reveal our highest selves.
Next up in this series: The Truth About the Truth About Cancer
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